• Mariana Floricica CĂLIN “Ovidius” University of Constanța, RO
  • Antonia SEUCEA Independent Researcher




burnout; professional stress;


Many teachers start their careers with a high level of energy and motivation, wanting to make their subject interesting to their students and demonstrate interest in them. However, professional disillusionment, accompanied by fear, insecurity and anxiety, replaces the joy of teaching. Teacher burnout is a multidimensional construction with three related constructions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and diminishing personal achievement.


Akın, U., Orman, E. (2015). The Relationship between Teachers’ Organizational Trust and Organizational Commitment Levels. SDU International Journal of Educational Studies, 2(2);

Baltas, A. & Baltas, Z. (2000). Stress and Ways of Coping. (Twentieth Edition). Istanbul: Remzi Kitabevi;

Bandura, A., (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Macmillan;

Barak, M.,Nissly, J., Levin, A (2001). Antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare, social work, and other human service employees: What can we learn from past research? A review and metanalysis. The Social Service Review, 75(4); http://www.ncdsv.org/images/SSR_Antecedents-to-retention-and-turnover_12-2001.pdf;

Beemsterboer, J., Baum, B. H. (1984). "Burnout": Definitions and health care management. Social Work in Health Care, 10(1),97-109. https://doi.org/10.1300/J010v10n01_08;

Beer, J., Beer, J. (1992). Burnout and stress, depression and self-esteem of teachers. Psychological Reports, 71(3, Pt. 2);, doi: 10.2466/pr0.1992.71.3f.1331;

Benbow, SM. Review Burnout: current knowledge and relevance to old age psychiatry. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. (1998) Aug; 13(8), doi: 10.1002/(sici)1099-1166(199808)13:8<520::aid-gps811>3.0.co;2-1. PMID: 9733332;

Bianchi, R. (2018), Burnout is more strongly linked to neuroticism than to work-contextualized factors. Psychiatry Research, 270;

Bimes, B. (1980). "Causes of Burnout." Personal Interview, Memphis State University, Memphis, Tennessee;

Blau, G., Andersson, L., Davis, K., Daymont, T., Hochner, A., Koziara, K., Portwood, J. şi Holladay, B. (2008). The relation between employee organizational and professional development activities. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72(1), 123-142. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2007.10.004;

Blom, V. (2012). Contingent self-esteem, stressors and burnout in working women and men. Work, 43(2);

Borritz, M. (2006). Burnout in human services work- causes and consequences. Preluat de pe http://www.arbejdsmiljoforskning.dk/upload/MB-phd.pd. ;

Boscarino, J.A., Adams, R.E., Figley, C.R. (2004). Mental health service use 1-year after the World Trade Center disaster: Implications for medical care General Hospital Psychiatry, 26;

Breen M., Sweeney J. (2013). Burnout: The experiences of nurses who work in inner city areas: Maria Breen and John Sweeney describe the factors that influence practitioners’ ability to cope with job stress. Mental Health Practice, 17;

Brouwers, A., Tomic, W. (1999). Teacher burnout, perceived self-efficacy in classroom management, and student disruptive behaviour in secondary education. Curriculum and Teaching, 14(2);

Chang M. (2009). An appraisal perspective of teacher burnout: Examining the emotional work of teachers. Educational Psychology Review.21 (3);

Constantin, T., 2004, Psychological evaluation of the staff, Polirom Publishing House, Iasi;

Cooper, C.,Travers, C., (2012). Teacher under pressure: stress in the teaching profession, 2rd ed,Routledge,New York;

Cooper, S., Conley, B. S. (Eds.). (2013), Moving from teacher isolation to collaboration: Enhancing professionalism and school quality. Lanham, ME: Rowman & Littlefield Education;

Cretu, D. (2000). Peculiarities of professional satisfaction in teachers. Scientific and Information Publication of the Land Forces Academy, 1(9);

Crocker, J., Lee, S. J., & Park, L. E. (2004), The pursuit of self-esteem: Implications for good and evil. In A. G. Miller (Ed.), The social psychology of good and evil: Understanding our capacity for kindness and cruelty, New York: Guilford Press;

Crossman, A., Harris, P. (2006), Job satisfaction of secondary school teachers. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 34(1);

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A.B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W.B. (2001), The job demands–resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86;

Dilekmen, M., Erdem B. (2013). Depression levels of the elementary school teachers. Proc. Soc. Behav. Sci. 93–806. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.091;

Endicott, L. (2006). Self-care of the professional: managing compassion fatigue and burnout in one’s practice. Presented at NACSW Convention in Philadelphia, PA;

Freudenberger, HJ. (1974), Staff burnout. J Soc Issues.30;

Freudenberger, HJ. (1983), Burnout: contemporary issues, trends and concerns. In: Farber BA, editor. Stress and burnout in the human service professions. New York: Pergamon;

Geving, A. M., (2007). Identifying the types of student and teacher behaviours associated with teacher stress. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23;

Ghorpade, J., Lackritz, J., Singh, G. (2007), Burnout and personality: Evidence from academia. Career Assessment, 15(2);

Greenglass, E., Fiksenbaum, L., Burke, R. J. (1996). Components of social support, buffering effects and burnout: Implications for psychological functioning. Anxiety Stress Coping, 10.1080/10615809608249401;

Harris, J. I., Winskowski, A. M. şi Engdahl, B. E. (2007). Types of workplace social support in the prediction of job satisfaction. The Career Development Quarterly, 56, doi:10.1002/j.2161-0045.2007.tb00027.x;

Huberman, A. M., Grounauer, M. M., & Marti, J. (1993). The lives of teachers. London, England: Cassel;

Jackson, RA., (1993). Am J PharmaceutEduc, ,57(1);

Jackson, S.E., Schwab, R.L., Schuler, R.S. (1986), Toward an understanding of the burnout phenomenon. Applied Psychology, 71(4);

Johnson, S., Cooper, C., Cartwright, S., Donald, I., Taylor, P., Millet, C., (2005). The experience of work-related stress across occupations. J. Manag. Psychol. 20, doi: 10.1108/02683940510579803;

Kobasa, S.C. (1979), Stressful life events, personality, and health: An inquiry into hardiness. Personality and Social Psychology, 37(1);

Kokkinos, C. M., (2007). Job stressors, personality and burnout in primary school teachers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77;

Lamude, K. G., Scudder, J., & Furno-Lamude, D. (1992). The relationship of student resistance strategies in the classroom to teacher burnout and teacher type-A behavior. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 7;

Langelaan, S., Bakker, A. B., Schaufeli, W. B., van Rhenen, W., van Doornen, L. J.

Langle A. (2003). The Art of Involving the Person. European Psychotherapy 4, 1;

Lee RT, Ashforth, BE. , (1990). On the meaning of Maslach's three dimensions of burnout. J Appl Psychol.Dec; 75(6);

Loonstra, B., Brouwers, A., Tomic, W. (2009). Feelings of existential fulfilment and burnout among secondary school teachers. Teach. Teach. Educ. 25;

Marzano, R. J., & Heflebower, T. (2012). Teaching and assessing 21st century skills. Bloomington, IN: Marzano Research Laboratory;

Maslach C, Jackson SE, Leiter MP. ,(1996). Maslach burnout inventory manual (3rd edition). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press;

Maslach, C. (1976). Burned-out. Human Behavior; 5;

Maslach, C. (2003). Job Burnout: New Directions in Research and Intervention. Current Directions In Psychological Science, 12(5),189-192. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.01258;

Maslach, C., Jackson, S. (1984) Burnout in Organizational Settings. Applied Social Psychology Annual, 5;

Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E.,Leiter, M. P. (1996). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (3rd ed.). Palo Alto,10-30. CA: Consulting Psychologists Press;

Maslach, C. , Jackson, SE. , (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. J Occup Behav.; 2;

Maslach, C., Leiter, M.P. (2008), Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. Applied Psychology, 93(3);

Maslach, C., Leiter, M.P. (2016a), Burnout. In: Fink, G., editor. Stress: Concepts, Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science;

Maslach, C., Leiter, M.P. (2016b), Understanding the burnout experience: Recent research and its implications for psychiatry. World Psychiatry, 15(2);

Maslach, C., Leiter, M.P., Jackson, S.E. (2012), Making a significant difference with burnout interventions: Researcher and practitioner collaboration. Organizational Behavior, 33(2);

Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52;

Maslach, C.,Jackson, S. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2;

Maslach, C.,Schaufeli, WB.,Leiter, MP., (2001), Annu Rev Psychol,51;

Muijs, D., Reynolds, D. (2002). Teachers’ beliefs and behaviors: What really matters? Journal of Classroom Interaction, 37(2);

Newell, J. M., & MacNeil, G. A. (2010). Professional Burnout, Vicarious Trauma, Secondary Traumatic Stress, and Compassion Fatigue: A Review of Theoretical Terms, Risk Factors, and Preventive Methods for Clinicians and Researchers. Best Practice In Mental Health, 6(2);

Ng’eno, G. (2007) Causes of Teacher Burnout among Primary School Teachers within Kericho Municipality, Kenya. Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria, 22;

Nindl, A. (2001). Zwischen existentieller Sinnerfüllung und Burnout. Existenzanalyse, 1, [Between existential fulfillment and burnout. Existential Analysis.];

Pines, A., Aronson, E. (1988). Career burnout: Causes and cures. New York: Free Press;

Pines, A., Maslach, C. (1978). Characteristics of staff burnout in mental health settings. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 29;

Puig, A., Baggs, A., Mixon, K., Park, Y., Kim, B., Lee, S. (2012). Relationship between job burnout and personal wellness in mental health professionals. Journal Of Employment Counseling, 49(3), doi:10.1002/j.2161-1920.2012.00010.x;

Ray , E. , Nichols , M.R., Perritt , L.J., (1987). "A Model of Job Stress and Burnout . " Hospice Journal, 3 ( 2-3 );

Reinke, W. M., Herman, K. C., Stormont, M. (2013). Classroomlevel positive behavior supports in schools implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying areas for enhancement. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 15;

Rotter, J.B., (1966), Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80(1);

Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., Maslach, C. (2009). Burnout: 35 years of research and practice. Career Development International, 14;

Schaufeli, W., Enzmann, D. (1998). The Burnout Companion to Study and Practice: A Critical Analysis. London / Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis;

Schaufeli, W.B., Buunk, B.P. (2003), Burnout: An overview of 25 years of research and theorizing. In: Schabracq, M.J., Winnubst, J.A.M., Cooper, C.L., editors. The Handbook of Work and Health Psychology. 2nd ed. New Jersey, United States: Wiley;

Shen, B., McCaughtry, N., Martin, J., Garn, A., Kulik, N., Fahlman, MBr.,The relationship between teacher burnout and student motivation. J Educ Psychol. 2015 Dec; 85(4);

Sherring, S., & Knight, D. (2009). An exploration of burnout among city mental health nurses. British Journal of Nursing, 18(20);

Sprang G, Clark JJ, Whitt-Woosley A.(2007) Compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and burnout: factors impacting a professional’s quality of life. J Loss Trauma.12, doi: 10.1080/15325020701238093;

Starrin, B., Larsson, G.,& Styrborne, S. (1990). A review and critique of psychological approaches to the burnout phenomenon. A Review and Critique of Psychological Approaches to the Burnout Phenomenon, 4(2);

Swider, B.W., Zimmerman, R.D. (2010), Born to burnout: A metaanalytic path model of personality, job burnout, and work outcomes. Vocational Behavior, 76(3);

Thomas, C. H., Lankau, M. J. (2009). Preventing burnout: the effects of LMX and mentoring on socialization, role stress, and burnout. Human Resource Management, 48(3);

Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A. W. (2007). The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs of novice and experienced teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23;

Yong, Z., Yue, Y. (2007). Causes for burnout among secondary and elementary school teachers and preventive strategies. Chin. Educ. Soc. 40, doi:10.2753/ced1061-1932400508;

Zembylas, M., Papanastasiou, E. (2006). Sources of teacher job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in Cyprus. Compare, 36(2).




How to Cite

CĂLIN, M. F. ., & SEUCEA, A. . (2022). EFFECTS OF BURNOUT ON THE SOCIO-PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY OF TEACHERS. International Journal of Legal and Social Order, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.55516/ijlso.v1i1.101



Social Order

Most read articles by the same author(s)