• Cristian Alunaru "Vasile Goldiş" Western University of Arad, Faculty of Legal Sciences, Arad, Romania




contract formation, obligations to inform the contracting parties, unfair terms, standard clauses, non-monetary clauses, compensation for non-pecuniary damage


During the timespan of over 150 years that has passed since the adoption of the old Romanian Civil Code (in force until October 1, 2011), a code influenced by the French Civil Code, which was passed almost 220 years ago, there have been large mutations at economic level that have had profound consequences in the social structure. In the two studies, presented by me during the conferences organized under the coordination of Professor Elena-Ana Iancu, I tried to analyze the measures introduced by the new Romanian Civil Code for the protection of the contractual part located in a position of economic inferiority. While in the first study, I managed to analyze only the injury, the hardship, and the reduction of the criminal clause, in this second paper I analyzed most of the other means considered by the new Civil Code for the protection of subjects of economic lower law

Author Biography

Cristian Alunaru, "Vasile Goldiş" Western University of Arad, Faculty of Legal Sciences, Arad, Romania




More detailed explanations on this topic: Chr. Alunaru, L. Botos, Das Kaufrecht in Rumänien nach dem neuen ZGB (The Sales Agreement in Romania according to the New Civil Code), Chapter III., C. „Rechtlicher Schutz der Willenserklärung. Vorbeugungsmaßnahmen zum Schutz der Willenserklärung. Aufklärungspflicht der Vertragsparteien” (Legal Protection of the Will Expression. Preventive Measures for the Protection of the Will Expression. The Contract Parties' Obligation for Information), Publishing House Nomos – facultas.wuv, Vienna, 2013, p. 60-65.

Alunaru Christian, Erwägungen zum Schmerzensgeldanspruch im gegenwärtigen rumänischen Zivilrecht (Consideration on Moral Damage– praetium doloris- in Contemporary Romanian Civil Law), in Studia Universitatis Babeș-Bolyai series Iurisprudentia no. 4/2010, (online), pp. 5-52.

Bălan I., Clauzele abuzive din contractele încheiate între comercianți și consumatori (Abusive Terms from the Contracts Concluded between the Traders and the Consumers) in Dreptul (The Law) 6/2001, pp. 36 and following.

Chirică D., Tratat de drept civil. Contracte speciale. Volumul I Vânzarea și schimbul (Treaty of Civil Law. Special Contracts. Volume I Sale and Exchange), Publishing House C.H. Beck, Bucharest 2008, pp. 284.301.

Hondius E., La Directive sur les clauses abusives et les Ètats membres de l´Union Européenne (The Directive on the Abusive Terms and the European Union Member States), in J. Ghestin/M. Fontaine, La protection de la partie faible dans les rapports contractuels (The Protection of the Inferior Party in the Contract Relations), Librairie Générale de Droit et de Jurisprudence, Paris 1996, pp. 591 and following.

Ghestin J., Marchessaux I., L´élimination des clauses abusives en droit français à l´épreuve du droit Communautaire (The Removal of the Abusive Terms in the French Law at the Influence of the Community Law), in Rev. Eur.dr. cons., 1993, No. 2, p. 68.

Goicovici J., Dreptul consumației (Consumption Law), Publishing House Sfera juridică, Cluj, 2006, pp. 79 and following, pp.157-178.

Larroumet Chr., Droit civil. Les obligations. Le contrat, (Civil Law. The Obligations), Economica, Paris, 2003, pp. 346-347.

Moise, in Baias, Chelaru, Constantinovici, Macavei, (Hrsg), Noul Cod civil. Comentariu pe articole (The New Civil Code. Comment on Articles), (2012), Art. 1184, Rz 6.

Pătulea V., Obligația de informare în formarea contractelor (The Obligation to Inform in Contracts Formation), in Revista de Drept Comercial (Journal of Commercial Law) No. 6/1998, p. 77 and following.

Pop Liviu, Popa Ionuț-Florin, Vidu Stelian-Ioan, Tratat elementar de drept civil. Obligațiile conform noului Cod civil. (Elementary Treaty of Civil Law. The Obligations according to the New Civil Code). Publishing House Universul Juridic, Bucharest, 2012, p. 93, p. 171, pp. 160-161, p. 169, footnote 4.

Pop L., Tratat de drept civil. Obligațiile. Vol. I. Regimul juridic general (Treaty of Civil Law. The Obligations. Volume I. General Legal Regime), Publishing House C.H. Beck, Bucharest, 2006.

Pop Liviu, Tratat de drept civil. Obligațiile. Volumul II. Contractul. (Treaty of Civil Law. The Obligations. Volume II. The Contract) Publishing House Universul Juridic, Bucharest, 2009.

Popa I.Fl., Dolul și obligația de informare în contractele sinalagmatice (Fraud and the Obligation to Inform in Bilateral Contracts), in “Dreptul” (the Law) No. 7/2002.

Popa I.Fl., Reprimarea clauzelor abuzive, în Pandectele Române (Repression of the Abusive Clauses in Romanian Pandects) 2/2004, p. 194, pp. 213 and following.

SchulzeR., H. Dörner, I. Ebert, Th. Hoeren, R. Kemper, I. Saenger, K. Schreiber, H. Schulte-Nölke, A. Staudinger, BGB Handkommentar, 7. Auflage (Pocket Comments on the German Civil Code, 7th edition), Publishing House Nomos, Baden-Baden, 2012. Introductory Note at §§ 305-310, marginal notes 5-7 and §310 „Anwendungsbereich“ (scope), marginal notes 1-2.

Terré Fr., Simler PH., Lequette Yv., Droit civil. Les obligations. (Civil Law. The Obligations) Dalloz, Paris, 2005.

Toader C., A. Ciobanu, Un pas important spre integrarea europeană: Legea nr. 193/2000 privind clauzele abuzive, Ordonanța Guvernului nr. 87/2000 privind răspunderea producătorilor și Ordonanța Guvernului nr. 130/2000 privind contractele la distanță (An Important Step towards European Integration: Law nr. 193/2000 on unfair terms, Government Ordinance no. 87/2000 on producer responsibility and Government Ordinance no. 130/2000 on distance contracts), in Revista de drept comercial (Journal of Commercial Law), 7/2003.

Zimmermann R., Le droit comparé et l´éuropénisation du droit privé (Compared Law and Europeanisation of the Private Law), in Revue trimestreille de droit civil 2007.

Alunaru Chr., Der Konsumentenschutz in Rumänien (Consumer Law in Romania), in Rudolf Welser (editor.) Konsumentenschutz in Zentral- und Osteuropa (Consumer Protection in Central and Easter Europe), Publishing House Manz, Vienna, 2010




How to Cite

Alunaru, C. . (2021). OTHER ROMANIAN CIVIL CODE PROVISIONS ON THE MEANS FOR PROTECTING THE SUBJECTS OF LAW IN ECONOMIC INFERIORITY. International Journal of Legal and Social Order, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.55516/ijlso.v1i1.35